Mikhail Gorbachev became head of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1985, after the messy succession crisis that followed the death of Leonid Brezhnev. From the start, Gorbachev was different from previous Soviet leaders. He had been educated at Moscow State University, grew up in a Christian family, and perhaps most importantly, reached adulthood after Stalin died, so he was not troubled by the haunting memory of purges or indoctrinated in strict Marxist-Leninist thought. Gorbachev's generation was far more familiar with the West than its predecessors, and the growing professional class, that was also well-educated, demanded reforms to improve the standard of living and address the troubled economic situation in the Soviet Union.
"Criticism is the examination and test of propositions of any kind which are offered for acceptance, in order to find out whether they correspond to reality or not. The critical faculty is a product of education and training. It is a mental habit and power. It is a prime condition of human welfare that men and women should be trained in it. It is our only guarantee against delusion, deception, superstition, and misapprehension of ourselves and our earthly circumstances. Education is good just so far as it produces well-developed critical faculty. A teacher of any subject who insists on accuracy and a rational control of all processes and methods, and who holds everything open to unlimited verification and revision, is cultivating that method as a habit in the pupils. Men educated in it cannot be stampeded. They are slow to believe. They can hold things as possible or probable in all degrees, without certainty and without pain. They can wait for evidence and weigh evidence. They can resist appeals to their dearest prejudices. Education in the critical faculty is the only education of which it can be truly said that it makes good citizens” (pp. 632, 633).
Socrates’ practice was followed by the critical thinking of Plato (who recorded Socrates’ thought), Aristotle, and the Greek skeptics, all of whom emphasized that things are often very different from what they appear to be and that only the trained mind is prepared to see through the way things look to us on the surface (delusive appearances) to the way they really are beneath the surface (the deeper realities of life). From this ancient Greek tradition emerged the need, for anyone who aspired to understand the deeper realities, to think systematically, to trace implications broadly and deeply, for only thinking that is comprehensive, well-reasoned, and responsive to objections can take us beyond the surface.
Another significant contribution to critical thinking was made by the thinkers of the French Enlightenment: Bayle, Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot. They all began with the premise that the human mind, when disciplined by reason, is better able to figure out the nature of the social and political world. What is more, for these thinkers, reason must turn inward upon itself, in order to determine weaknesses and strengths of thought. They valued disciplined intellectual exchange, in which all views had to be submitted to serious analysis and critique. They believed that all authority must submit in one way or another to the scrutiny of reasonable critical questioning.
With intellectual language such as this in the foreground, students can now be taught at least minimal critical thinking moves within any subject field. What is more, there is no reason in principle that students cannot take the basic tools of critical thought which they learn in one domain of study and extend it (with appropriate adjustments) to all the other domains and subjects which they study. For example, having questioned the wording of a problem in math, I am more likely to question the wording of a problem in the other subjects I study.
Solution : The general thinking that lower prices wil result in fewer units being supplied holds when ceteris paribus i.e. holding every other external factor or situation constant which is not the case in the example given.There are many mistakes which have been made in this thinking. Firstly, when comparing the two time periods i.e 1972 and 2000, one basic difference is the difference in the functionalities of two calculators. Obviously, the 2000 calculator would have many different and advanced features making it more and more lucrative for consumers. So the demand for calculators might be high...
We've been absolutely staggered by realizing that the computer has the capability to act as if it were ten of the top psychologists working with one student. You've seen the tip of the iceberg. Won't it be wonderful when the child in the smallest county in the most distant area or in the most confused urban setting can have the equivalent of the finest school in the world on that terminal and no one can get between that child and the curriculum?
From the new paradigm perspective, this sounds "wonderful". Each child will have his or her own personal high-tech program for learning. It offers immediate rewards for "right" thinking and corrections for old paradigm thinking. As Mr. Heuston pointed out, "no one [especially parents] can get between that child and that computer." Parents may be allowed to monitor some selected computer programs--but not the ones that raise concern.
Group discussion is a way of thinking together. It is a method of pooling your ideas and information with that of others to come to some general conclusions. A leader generally guides the process of the group, but each person must have the responsibility of contributing his share.
Anita Hoge, from audio cassette portion of Talking Papers: A "Hands on" Tool for parents to understand outcome based education (West Alexander, PA: self-published, 1994). "The National Assessment of educational Progress (NAEP) developed nine general citizenship objectives... These national objectives were used to provide the frame of reference for what was to be measured."